I will try to answer your questions with CELE (Air).
1. This is an unrelated question but how fast do you move through the ranks? I think you start out as 2nd Lieutenant, could you perhaps provide a timeline?
After you received your commission and you are 2Lt, you will have to complete a package called On-Job raining Performance Record (OJPR). You will have to do that package in one of those flying unit (Greenwood, Bagotville, Trenton, Cold Lake or Comox). Not Winnipeg because you will need to have access to the equipment on the airfield. You have to complete the OJPR in 6 months, after that you will go at the school CFSCE in Kingston for 4-6 months. After that you will be promoted to Lt. You will have to wait 1-2 year(s) before being promoted to Captain.
2. What kind of responsibilities will you get for AERE and CELE? I know the general stuff they've got on the website but more specifically, on other threads they've listed position names but I don't know what they mean.
A Cele (air) officer will have different responsibilities depending on where you will be posted. If you are on a wing, you will be responsible for all communications on the wing such as radios, radars, Share Services Canada(SSC), Security communications and more. Or you can be posted in Ottawa, doing some future planning on acquire IT materials and more.
3. I read that anywhere there are planes there will be an AERE officer, could I possibly choose to go on a deployment with the navy? Just one deployment because the navy life seems awesome but not permanently (cause of constant deployments), what chance would I have of doing that?
Don't forget, that anywhere there are air force base, you will need Cele (air) for the communications even overseas.
4. If I were to choose to leave the CF how do these 2 occupations "rank" in the civilian world? Both of these occupations are awesome but based on my experience with the CF which one would be "better"?
I am not sure about aere, but I know Cele (air) officer if you to quit the FC, you have a lot of job you can do in civilian world because of your qualifications.
Hopefully, that helps you a little bit even you posted in Feb.